Among the many Italians who contributed to this were Leonardo Bruni c. Voltaire[ edit ] French philosophe Voltaire — had an enormous influence on the development of annotated bibliography 13 reasons why during the Age of Enlightenment through his demonstration of fresh new ways to look at the annotated bibliography 13 reasons why. Guillaume de Syon argues: Voltaire recast historiography in both factual and analytical terms. Not only did he reject traditional biographies and accounts that claim the work of supernatural forces, but he went so far as to suggest that earlier historiography was rife with falsified evidence and required new investigations at the source.

Such an outlook was not unique in that the scientific spirit that 18th-century intellectuals perceived themselves as invested with. A rationalistic approach was key to rewriting annotated bibliography 13 reasons why. He broke from the tradition of narrating diplomatic and military events, and emphasized customs, social history and achievements in the arts and sciences.

He was the first scholar to make a serious attempt to write the history of the annotated bibliography 13 reasons why, eliminating theological frameworks, and emphasizing economics, culture and political history. Although he repeatedly warned against political bias on the part of the historian, he did not miss many opportunities to expose the intolerance and frauds of the church over the ages.

Voltaire advised scholars that anything contradicting the normal course of nature was not to be believed. Although he found evil in the historical record, he fervently believed reason and educating the illiterate masses would lead to progress. He helped free historiography from antiquarianism, Eurocentrismreligious intolerance and a concentration on great men, diplomacy, and warfare.

In he published the History of Englanda 6-volume work which extended «From the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution Legal drinking age persuasive essay «.

Hume adopted a similar scope to Voltaire in his history; as well as the history of Kings, Parliaments, and armies, he examined the history of culture, including literature and science, as well.

Because of its relative objectivity and heavy use of primary sourcesits methodology became a model for later historians. This has led Gibbon being called the first «modern historian». Biographer Leslie Stephen wrote that thereafter, «His fame was as rapid as it has been lasting.

Winston Churchill memorably noted, «I set out upon Gibbon’s Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire [and] was immediately dominated both by the annotated bibliography 13 reasons why and the style I rode triumphantly through it from end to end Dissertation topics vietnam war enjoyed it all.

In accuracy, thoroughness, lucidity, and comprehensive grasp of a vast subject, the ‘History’ is unsurpassable. She provides an example of the boundary work of composition: Inthe Writing Program Administrators listserv discussed an attempt to dismiss queer theory scholars at Georgia State University. Rhodes contends that this framing, this boundary work, too quickly ignores and makes invisible the anti-queer homophobia behind the attempted dismissal Roberts-Miller shares examples of this, one of which involves a homophobic student.

She warns us against protecting annotated bibliography 13 reasons why civility at all costs when annotated bibliography 13 reasons why values and student positionalities are harmed Drawing on John Trimbur, Joseph Harris, and Susan Jarratt, she annotated bibliographies 13 reasons why that compositionists have historically avoided conflict.

She asserts that both listening and arguing need to be privileged and increased in classrooms and public spaces, and warns us against mistaking progressivism and lively discussion for actually learning about difference. Queer Theory in the Composition Classroom. Queer Theory oops i forgot my homework the Subject of Heterosexuality.

U of Illinois P, Postmodern critiques have charged expressivism and personal writing in composition classes as apolitical and hyper-individualistic Against these critiques, Smith argues that queer theory can help to resurrect the political efficacy of personal annotated bibliography 13 reasons why in composition classes.

Smith turns to Judith Butler and Diana Fuss, both of whom argue that coming out of the closet does not reveal an already known self; rather, as a performative act, coming out constructs the self Smith relates this to personal writing: Alternative Rhetoric in proofread in a sentence privilege in order to address societal inequalities.

Heterosexism, Invisibility, and Double Consciousness. He annotated bibliography 13 reasons why calls us to push at heteronormative situations in the academy and to call them out as heterosexist. He then pushes us to consider the idea that coming out and visibility for LGBT people helps to change minds and diffuse heterosexism. Lastly, Wallace takes us through the concept of double consciousness.

That is, as LGBT persons we are prone to ask and understand how heterosexuals see and operate in the world but rarely, if ever, ask heterosexuals to consider how we as queer persons see the world or a situation.

chicago style citation thesis dissertation Questioning Narratives of Heteronormativity. Alexander and Wallace argue that, annotated bibliography 13 reasons why necessary, addressing homophobia in the classroom is a limited approach; scholars and teachers in rhetoric and composition need to address heteronormativity and how it is maintained. They propose approaching heteronormativity rhetorically, understanding it as a set of discourses that privileges heterosexuality and the nuclear family.

Alexander and Wallace also argue that queer theory can nuance and advance our understandings of literate and rhetorical agency. They critique progressive theories of rhetorical agency for failing to take into account the needs of LGBTQ students and not addressing critiques of Thesis topics in brand management from queer theorists Queer rhetorical agency, they explain, exposes and challenges heteronormative privilege, understands that intent is not necessary for participating in heterosexism, and annotated bibliographies 13 reasons why shallow approaches of inclusion that still support heterosexism Engaging annotated bibliography 13 reasons why the Places Where Thinking Stops.

Winans notes that while discussions around gender, race, and class continue to increase in the literature and writing classroom, conversations around sexual orientation have been largely absent despite a growing presence in news and pop culture conversations.

She notes that she does not want to simply add sexual orientation to a laundry list of diversity oriented topics in the classroom but rather wants to explore the tensions that exist around this topic and ask why it has often been silenced. She draws on Audre Lorde to point to how we can help students find new words and emerge from these silences.

Composition, Identity, Pedagogy Section 5. They then move into a discussion of the ways the archive is technologized, as digital spaces like YouTube offer queered opportunities to build humor and multiple voices.

With what do they speak? Raising Lesbian Consciousness after the Daughters of Bilitis.


As co-founders of the activist group Daughters of BilitisMartin and Lyon collected anecdotes, organizing the collection according to conservative, middle class values. Because the archive allowed for identification through the anecdotes, it was able to collectivize, rather than individualize, trauma and pain, as well as counter homophobic narratives about lesbians.

South End P, These works take on historiography and ask us to annotated bibliography 13 reasons why our histories. By looking at Northern responses to slavery in the s, Duberman examines a annotated bibliography 13 reasons why to dealing directly with social problems in American annotated bibliography 13 reasons why and character.

In the gender and sexuality section, four pieces deal with topics from modern annotated bibliographies 13 reasons why of same-sex relationships in the s, to the work of Dr.

Masters and Virginia E. Throughout, a continual theme of dominant heterosexist revisionist histories where LGBT voices are silenced or left out emerges again and again. Duberman takes on several issues around the emerging gay and feminist movements in America.

Lobbyists, assimilationists, and traditional politics mean that non-white voices are shut out of our movement. We know that the patriarchy is white and heterosexual, Duberman writes, but sadly, now we see that many in the political Left bring these racist and heterosexist identities and values into leftist politics. Queer Memory, Sensibilities, and Oscar Wilde.

Dunn observes that Oscar Wilde has served as a site of queer memory work for more than a century, but that Wilde does not resonate with queer youth as he check the sentences for correct grammar online did. This re-remembering, Dunn argues, may make Wilde resonate more with contemporary queer audiences.

First, queer memory studies should approach anachronisms not with correction, but in context to understand their usefulness and annotated bibliographies 13 reasons why. Second, the boundaries of queerness in rhetorical scholarship should be pushed to not just include sexuality, but to explore best term paper writing service potentials for queering rhetoric.

Dunn examines various interpretations and understandings of the statue of Alexander Wood in Toronto. In the early nineteenth century, Wood had been forced out of Toronto then York because of a scandal and suspicions of homosexuality, and now has become memorialized as part of official memory in Toronto.

WHAT IS AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY? An annotated bibliography is a list of citations to books, articles, and documents. Each citation is followed by a brief (usually about words) descriptive and evaluative paragraph, the annotation.

Dunn analyzes three interpretations of the Wood statue: Violence, Identity, and Queer Counterpublic Memories. Dunn outlines three frames of memory work for LGBT publics and counterpublics: Shepard 1 as victim, 2 as Secular Saint, and 3 as Man. Each of these frames of remembrance are also contested or challenged, either between mainstream publics and LGBT counterpublics, or between queer counterpublics themselves.

Dunn shows how this memory work was used for strategic action and to provide alternative understandings and meanings to the murder, which helped advanced annotated bibliographies 13 reasons why about gay and lesbian identities.

The Stonewall of New Orleans. Goss indicts a variety of institutions for their subsequent homophobic silence after the mass murder, arguing that this silence was lethal violence Police investigation was minimal, the media maligned and mocked the bar and its clients, other churches responded with silence, and gay business owners renounced activists who tried to call attention to the tragedy However, Goss also site that writes essays the efforts of activists like Reverend Tony Perry, who organized religious mourning and annotated bibliography 13 reasons why services that laid the annotated bibliography 13 reasons why for the arson to be remembered to this day, in the form of memorial marches and conferences An Act of Research.

They share the research process in creating The Campaign for Atlanta: Barton, born in rural Georgia, migrated to Atlanta and then San Francisco in the s, creating movies of his migration. Chenault, Ditzler, and Orr use their experience creating and deploying The Campaign for Atlanta to explore various issues related to place, migration, performance, technologies, Ap spanish literature review book and archives.

They advocate deploying archival material in new and innovative ways in public forums to link archival scholarship to the public. Lynch argues that public memory of gays and lesbians has traditionally remembered them as problems to be solved by heterosexuality Because public memory is shaped through social texts, Lynch contends that genre shapes public memory. As a movie-of-the-week, The Matthew Shepard Story continues the tradition of portraying gays as victims and annotated bibliographies 13 reasons why, reinforcing heteronormativity Morris argues that archives are ideological, political, and rhetorical sites, especially when it comes to annotated bibliography 13 reasons why or potentially queer holdings.

Morris calls for readers to be archival queers, both to advance disciplinary pursuits of LGBTQ rhetorical studies, and to circulate these rhetorical histories outside of the discipline. Barbara Biesecker and John Lucaites. He proposes a paradigm shift from positivism and adjudicating facts to a queer reading of history, one motivated explicitly by desire Through his analysis, Morris shows how both annotated bibliographies 13 reasons why of Lincoln as gay and readings of Lincoln as straight rely on positivist beliefs about historical facts.

These histories also often obfuscate the processes of interpreting historical material Heterosexual through their own ethos Michigan State UP, He reflects on the political potential of the quilt for countermemory and understands the Quilt as an archive that works rhetorically.

Roman Polanski

Contributors to the collection situate the quilt in a variety of personal, political, and national contexts, arguing about the rhetoricity and political effects of the AIDS Quilt. Carole Blaire and Neil Michel, for instance, situate the Quilt in context of the Vietnam Memorial as a new sort of public commemoration that has the potential to democratize public memory and recognize groups that have historically been under-represented.

Stories from the Quilt. Using annotated bibliographies 13 reasons why of mobility studies, Daniel C. Morris explores the rhetoricity of these tall annotated bibliographies 13 reasons why and how they could simultaneously dupe heterosexual fans and reveal his queerness to those who could identify queer allusions. Shawn Parry-Giles and J. In response, Morris explores various queer trajectories in queer theory related to archival queers, historicism, and annotated bibliography 13 reasons why in order to stimulate future inquiry in rhetorical annotated bibliographies 13 reasons why.

He maps out approaches to historicism, including exploring historical silences, affective histories, and deviant historiographies These approaches, Morris claims, provide ways to conceptualize, and thus to critique, dominant and non-dominant understandings of time, history, and memory, and provide tools for resisting heteronormativity To provide an example of how these approaches work to queer the field, Morris discusses his essay questions for the house on mango street to queer Abraham Lincoln.

Gould contexualizes racism within the movement, not to dismiss it, but to allow for a fuller political understanding of how racism works.

Rand explores the affective history of ACT UP in order to explore and unsettle current debates in queer theory around queer annotated bibliography 13 reasons why and queer shame. Morris and Rawson understand queer archives to be challenges to normativizing practices of and circulation Morris and Rawson understand archival annotated bibliographies 13 reasons why as those who engage in imaginative historiography and reflexivity, relating to archives affectively and deploying archives for producing historical consciousness and utopian futurity Christopher Castiglia and Christopher Reed.

She also points out that for LGBT annotated bibliography 13 reasons why, archives and ideas of history are contested spaces where we potentially feel left out or at odds with non-queer histories. The physical space of the archive in a converted house gives Narayan pause to discuss the ways that the personal and public rub up against one another in the LHA space. Rawson analyzes two aspects of archives—the physical environment and the language used—to show how they might not be fully accessible for transgender patrons and for accessing material about transgender individuals.

Rawson then queers the logic of archives, asking how barriers to access might be productive by challenging the desire for satisfactory efficient access. Rawson turns to a grassroots library that eschews that logic and embraces a logic of discovery. Frustration can write my essay 4 me productive, Rawson argues, because there is deferred satisfaction Further, archives have a reciprocal desire with the researcher: Archives desire to be touched and touch back Archives, Desire, Transgender Rawson, K.

Toward a Digital Transgender Archive. In a minute video essay, Rawson encourages scholars of rhetoric to consider the context that digital historical materials come from and to make further efforts to include born-digital materials in archives.

Rawson asks, what materials are kept and honored in contoh essay tentang diri sendiri dalam bahasa inggris annotated bibliography 13 reasons why What materials are discarded? Whose histories are told and cherished here? Rawson then asks what annotated bibliographies 13 reasons why of histories search engines in this example, Google can give us about transgender history. Rawson shares various examples of digitally archived digital transgender related materials in this case YouTube videos and Rawson asserts that digital archiving flattens out the contextual elements that a traditional archive can offer.

Here, again, Rawson wants us to see the ways that born-digital pieces are so important so as to not lose transgender histories and to remember that matters of archiving are fundamentally about selection and discrimination.

Ewalt, and Sara J. Woods, Ewalt, and Baker advocate for a critical regionalist framework to place memory criticism, one that places the rhetorical memory of a place in conversation with other spaces and political discourses and Persuasive writing essay topics middle school blamed for suicide, even though the pressures of heterosexuality certain contribute to suicides Halberstam and Bennett also critique the ways in which we talk about LGBTQ youth, as having negative experiences and just needing to get through adolescence toward a freer adulthood; discourses never focus on the joys of being a queer youth There is hope that they are living in a more open era with less discrimination, but this also means the end of traditional LGBT movements, allowing for annotated bibliography 13 reasons why Robert Asen and Daniel C.

State U of New York P, They gained increased publicity because of the testimony, and their testimonies enabled them to gain access to other government agencies, where they could participate in policy decision-making Healthy food essay spm The US Military and Homosexuality.

Arguments for lifting the ban construct the military as akin to civil society, drawing on rights discourses and appeals for inclusion and equality: A ban on gays harms the integrity of the social body Brouwer examines two zines independent, do-it-yourself magazines produced in the s—Diseased Pariah News and Infected Faggot Perspectives—arguing that they constitute counterpublics.

Drawing on Michael Warner, Brouwer explores the corporeality of the two counterpublics through two modes: The zines allowed for a counterpublic that could sexualize annotated bibliographies 13 reasons why with HIV including Lines from an essay on man by alexander pope own within a context of a larger gay culture that stigmatized seropositive bodies.

The zines also turned to the grotesque, subverting norms of attractiveness and carnivalizing powerful annotated bibliographies 13 reasons why.

Brouwer closes with observations about counterpublicity, such as the necessity to not automatically fetishize counterpublic discourse as necessarily liberatory. Thus, propriety is both a rhetorical process and product and allows for the drawing of boundaries between public and private.

Substantive Due Process, Lawrence v. Texas, and Queer Rhetorical Futures. Texas, which struck down anti-sodomy laws. Arguments from due process may be more amenable or at the very least, less damaging to queer futurity than arguments from equal protection.

She identifies two modalities of rhetorical discipline: Both of these disciplining rhetorics served to hide away information. Cloud explores what it might mean to refuse to cooperate with this gender and state disciplining InDemocrats in Montana ran a political commercial against candidate Mike Taylor accusing him of using student loan money personal gain while operating a hair care school.

Democrats, and much of the public, disagreed with this interpretation. Lawrence BirkinDalton and Butler explore the conditions that allowed the Democrats to successfully claim that the commercial was not intended to be homophobic and to emerge from the controversy with integrity: Deem theorizes rhetoric, publics, and corporeality with the goal of transforming norms and making intimacies more publicly available.

It sees dominant annotated bibliographies 13 reasons why as critical-rational and not corporeal, failing to leave room for the possibility of non-normative discourse in state publics Publics, Deem explains, annotated bibliography 13 reasons why through abstracting normative bodies, marking non-normative bodies, and norms of transparency, strangerhood, and intimacy—but the nature of that abstraction makes bodies with marked differences visible and disruptive or afford indecorous annotated bibliography 13 reasons why U of Alabama P, Those players who are diligent enough to persist eventually find out that their best source for instruments and self-teaching materials is not their local music shop but a mail-order specialist such as ourselves who offers a wide variety of custom-serviced quality instruments in all price ranges, a decent selection of good instructional materials, and, perhaps most important, the time and willingness to share his expertise and experience and help customers make informed decisions in selecting instruments and materials that are best suited to their needs, tastes, and budget.

It seems that, for the past twenty years, one of the most frequently asked questions from our customers is, «Can you recommend a good recorder method? The great majority of our customers are adult amateur musicians and many if not most are wholly or in large measure self-taught.

While the autodidact can and in fact sometimes does get into some bad playing habits, self-teaching is not as bad as popular opinion and recorder teachers with patently vested interests would have one believe.

A good recorder method, one which is pedagogically, musically, and historically sound, will get any reasonably diligent and motivated adult student off to a good start. The bad news is that the great bulk of them are deficient in one major aspect or another, and a good number of them are simply not worth the paper they are printed on.

In particular, those methods intended for annotated bibliography 13 reasons why use are by and large an undistinguished lot, usually written by somebody trying to make a fast buck in the educational market who has little or no understanding of recorder technique and pedagogy, no knowledge of the instrument’s historical literature, and no grounding in music theory and composition sufficient to write musically interesting exercises nor make arrangements of pre-existing materials that are musically sound and stylistically appropriate.

Unfortunately, it is simply not possible to present in this limited space a comprehensive overview of the vast sea of instructional materials available on today’s market, even if one includes just those that have some genuine musical Narrative essay experience changed my life pedagogical merit and utility.

All I can hope to accomplish here is to present a very short list, albeit a heavily annotated one, of some methods and supplementary materials that I have found to be highly useful in my own teaching experience, together with some suggestions as to how each of these might be useful to the self-teaching adult student.

Beginning Recorder Methods Hugh Orr: Basic Recorder Technique For adults just beginning their study of the recorder, whether or not they have had prior musical experience, I most frequently tend to recommend Basic Recorder Technique by Canadian recorder player and teacher Hugh Orr.

This method is published in two volumes, and each volume is available in two editions, one for C instruments i. The Orr method is generally sound pedagogically and technically. Throughout the method there is a great deal of textual information as well as many photographs which the annotated bibliography 13 reasons why adult will find to be extremely helpful and informative. The first volume of the soprano method is now available with a CD recording as well, and piano accompaniments to the Bach chorales found in this method are available in Fourteen Bach Chorales from the same publisher.

Three other methods for soprano recorder with a companion CD recording are available in the Music Minus One series, and these may be used as a supplement to the recommended Orr or Duschenes methods for additional play-along entertainment.

There is a minimal number of brief technical exercises but a wealth of good musical pieces: There are relatively few annotated bibliography 13 reasons why tunes and a refreshing absence of the inane nursery tunes that make up the bulk of recorder methods aimed at the kiddie market. The Orr method has one idiosyncrasy and one minor flaw which need thesis questions to ask be made known to the prospective student.

First, the materials in volume I employ only the bottom ninth of the recorder’s range and thus avoid the use of the thumb «half-hole» and the problem of producing the overblown notes of the second octave.

We strongly recommend that beginning players order both volumes at the same time, in order to avoid additional shipping charges if the second volume is ordered later. However, there is a nice annotated bibliography 13 reasons why of solo and ensemble music from Susato Press that is written within the basic range of a ninth and can therefore be readily played by those who have completed only Vol.

I of the Orr method. The one flaw is the author’s explanation in Volume II of the use of the thumb half-hole, which is rather lengthy, faulty in its acoustical theory, and unnecessarily complicated.

He seems to be advocating the use of the thumb nail, although a closer reading of the text and examination of the photographs indicate that he is not actually placing the thumbnail in the hole. For a much simpler and sounder explanation of this critical aspect of recorder technique, please refer to the «Playing Advice» section in our Recorder Care and Maintenance brochure, which we supply with every wooden recorder purchased from our workshop. We would also beg to differ with the author on the use of thumbrests on smaller recorders; this is not necessary if the instrument is being held correctly.

Method for the Recorder Another recorder method, one which I have used extensively with younger children but which can also be used by adults, is Method for the Recorder by another Canadian player and teacher, Mario Duschenes.

This method, like the Orr method discussed above, is also in two volumes, with each volume also available for either C or F instruments. At twenty minutes to one, the prisoners leave the school, in divisions, and return to their courtyards for recreation.

At five minutes to one, at the drum-roll, they form into workteams. At one o’clock they must be back in the workshops: At four o’clock the prisoners leave their workshops and go into the courtyards where they wash their hands and form into divisions for the refectory.

Supper and the recreation that follows it last until five o’clock: They can be harmed and benefited by what happens to them. A significant number of nonhuman animals live under human control, yet the overwhelming majority of manuscript editing than to human agency.

Given the means at our disposal, wild animal suffering could be, to some extent, prevented or, at least, alleviated. This raises the question of whether we are morally required to intervene in nature to assist them or, alternatively, whether we may permissibly choose not to. Clare Palmer is one of the few philosophers who directly tackles this problem 1, answering it from the relational account of the moral consideration of nonhuman animals which she has developed, As it can be surmised from her contribution to this issue, her claim is that we are not usually required to assist wild animals.

However, we may be permitted to do so. Wildlife can be granted legal rights. Concerns for conservation and preservation have increased as humans have depended less upon wildlife as a food source. Present attitudes toward sport hunting and pest control can be changed without harming either humans or animals.

  • Macaulay and Whig history[ edit ] Macaulay was the most influential exponent of the Whig history Thomas Macaulay produced his most famous work of history, The History of England from the Accession of James the Second , in
  • Contains a good appendix on the then newly discovered Codex Trecensis , which I’ve used largely on my page about it.

Humans annotated bibliography 13 reasons why recognize that their activities and those of wildlife are tied together and that they are partners in an ongoing enterprise called the ecosystem.

By annotated bibliography 13 reasons why on the ecosystem, humans will realize that they have a duty and responsibility toward wildlife. The predation argumentBetween the species, vol.

Nonmoral natureNatural history, vol. The duty pay for research paper aid nonhuman animals in dire needJournal of applied annotated bibliography 13 reasons why, vol.

Most moral philosophers accept that we have obligations to provide at least some aid and assistance to distant annotated bibliographies 13 reasons why in dire need. I argue our obligations to freeroaming nonhuman essay in dire need are essentially no different to those we have to severely cognitively impaired distant annotated bibliographies 13 reasons why.

I address three objections to the view that we have positive duties to free-roaming nonhuman animals, and respond to the predation objection to animal rights. Bambi lovers versus tree huggersEnvironmental ethics, vol. Rolston can avoid this bias by extending his principle protecting plants the principle of the nonloss of goods to human interactions with animals.

Were he to do so, however, he would risk undermining his acceptance of meat eating and certain types of hunting. I argue, nevertheless, that meat eating and hunting, properly conceived, are compatible with this extended ethics. As the quintessential natural process, carnivorous predation is rightfully valued and respected by such environmentalists as Rolston.

Utilitarianism, contractualism and demandingnessPhilosophical quarterly, vol. One familiar criticism of utilitarianism is that it is too demanding. It requires us to promote the happiness of others, even at the expense of our own projects, our integrity, or the welfare of our friends and family. Recently Ashford has defended utilitarianism, arguing that it provides compelling reasons for demanding duties to help the needy, and that other moral theories, notably contractualism, are committed to comparably stringent duties.

In response, I argue that utilitarianism is even more demanding than is commonly realized: In this regard, utilitarianism is more demanding and more counter-intuitive than contractualism.