Information behaviour in online health forums: He was talking about a project he had been working on for about four years, a Shared space and a space for sharing.
This paper is a follow up to the article “Information literacy in Europe: a literature review”, which was published in the electronic journal Information Research in This paper examines the information literacy movement in Europe ten years later, since , .
The project bid emerged from an intense «sandpit» information literacy in europe a literature review. The name of the information literacy in europe a literature review signals that «the web is a vast shared space: Thus it is both a shared space and a space in which things can be shared.
Common to all the parts of the project was an interest in how people in extreme circumstances use the web, the intersection between empathy, trust and sharing and an interest in finding out whether sharing was based on empathy and trust. The Sheffield University workpackage was looking at people with terminal or lifethreatening or long term health conditions.
Information Literacy is …
Others looked write a essay online for example, people in humanitarian crisis, those seeking organ donation, those experiencing drug addiction. Looking more specifically at the work in Sheffield, they focused on two illnesses: The researchers collaborated 1 with the Breast Cancer Care Forum. This forum is split into boards that reflect different aspects of the breast cancer «journey» 2 the Motor Neurone Disease Association which has an online forum.
These two organisations allowed data download so that the forum posts could be analysed, and also helped the researchers recruit people to interview people with the disease and forum moderators.
Thus they were gaining an insight into how and why people were using the forums and how they felt about it. Bath stressed the ethical issues: The researchers change the wording of quotations, so that they can’t be searched and traced information literacy in europe a literature review to the individual. Bath moved on to talk about the process of diagnosis, and how this was different in the two diseases: Thus information literacy in europe a literature review MND people might go home and start searching for information about the condition.
There is fear of the unknown, and also people will have individual experiences of the condition, so you can’t know that the way your health progresses will be the same as another person with the disease.
Many questions crowded in – for example how it would impact thir loved ones. Their is a lot of power in sharing information see photo both sharing your own information, and gaining information about what the future might be, by hearing about other’s experience.
This information can be very sensitive: From that point of view, the role of the forum moderator is Como elaborar un curriculum vitae efectivo important.
Sharing emotions is important, as ill-health has a information literacy in europe a literature review emotional impact, people are unburdening feelings though the etiquette is that you don’t do this all the time. During this era, literacy was «a largely functional matter, propelled by the need to manage the new quantities of information and the new type of governance created by trade and large scale production».
Proto-cuneiform texts exhibit not only numerical signs, but also ideograms depicting objects being counted. The Egyptian hieroglyphic writing system was the first notation system to have phonetic values.
These civilizations used glyphic writing and bar-and-dot numerical notation systems for purposes related to royal iconography and calendar systems. These systematic notations were found inscribed on bones and recorded sacrifices made, tributes received, and animals hunted, which information literacy in europe a literature review activities of the elite. These oracle-bone inscriptions were the early ancestors of modern Chinese script and contained logosyllabic script and numerals.
Indus script is largely pictorial and has not been deciphered yet. It may or may not include abstract signs. It is thought that they wrote from right to left and that the script is thought to be logographic. Because it has not been deciphered, linguists disagree on whether it is a complete and independent writing system; however, it is genuinely thought to be an independent writing system that emerged in the Harappa culture. Origins of the alphabet[ edit ] According to social anthropologist Jack Goodythere are two interpretations that information literacy in europe a literature review the origin of the alphabet.
Many classical scholars, such as historian Ignace Gelbcredit the Ancient Greeks for creating the first alphabetic system c. But Goody contests, «The importance of Greek culture of the subsequent history of Western Europe has led to an over-emphasis, by classicists and others, on the addition of specific vowel signs to the set of consonantal ones that had been developed earlier in Western Asia». Much of this theory’s information literacy in europe a literature review is credited to English archeologist Flinders Petriewho, incame across a information literacy in europe a literature review of Canaanite inscriptions located in the turquoise mines of Serabit el-Khadem.
Ten years later, English Egyptologist Alan Gardiner reasoned that these letters contain an alphabet, as well as references to the Canaanite goddess Asherah. InWilliam F. Albright deciphered the text using additional evidence that had been discovered subsequent to Goody’s findings. This included a series of inscriptions from Ugaritdiscovered in by French archaeologist Claude F. Some of these inscriptions were mythological texts written in an early Coca cola case study analysis twelfth century BCE.
According to Frank Moore Crossthese inscriptions consisted of alphabetic signs that originated during the transitional information literacy in europe a literature review from pictographic script to a linear alphabet. Moreover, he asserts, «These inscriptions also provided clues to extend the decipherment of earlier and later alphabetic texts».
During the Late Bronze Agesuccessor alphabets appeared throughout the Mediterranean region and were employed for PhoenicianHebrew and Aramaic. According to Goody, these cuneiform scripts may have influenced the development of the Greek alphabet several centuries later. Historically, the Greeks contended that their writing system was modeled after the Phoenicians. However, many Semitic scholars now believe that Ancient Greek is more consistent with an early form Canaanite that was used c. While the earliest Greek inscriptions are dated c.
Baruch ben NeriahJeremiah’s information literacy in europe a literature review, used this alphabet to create the later scripts of the Old Testament. It was then that the new script «Square Hebrew» emerged and the older one rapidly died out. As the Bronze Age collapsedthe Aramaeans moved into Canaan and Phoenician territories and adopted their scripts. Although early evidence of this writing is scarce, archeologists have uncovered a wide range of later Aramaic texts, written as Essay on summer season for class 3rd as the seventh century BCE.
Due to its longevity and prevalence in the region, Achaemenid rulers would come to adopt it as a «diplomatic language».
Aramaic merchants carried older variations of the language as far as Indiawhere it later influenced the development of Brahmi scripture.
It also led to the developments of ArabicPahlavi an Iranian adaptation»as well as for a range of alphabets used by early Turkish and Mongol tribes in SiberiaMongolia and Turkestan «. The Aramaic language would die out with the spread of Islam and with it, its influence of Arabic. Ancient and post-classical literacy[ edit ] Further information: Latin information literacy in europe a literature review Until recently it was thought that the majority of people were illiterate in exploitable-currenc.000webhostapp.com times.
The Republic amassed huge archives of reports on every aspect of public life». The army kept extensive records relating to supply and duty rosters and submitted reports.
Merchants, shippers, and landowners and their personal staffs especially of the larger enterprises must have been literate. In the late fourth century the Desert Father Pachomius would expect literacy of a candidate for admission to his monasteries: And if he is illiterate he shall go at the first, third and sixth hours to someone who can teach and has been appointed for him. He shall stand before him and learn very studiously and with all gratitude.
- The presence of a proactive moderator was important in creating trust in the board.
- Script developed independently at least five times in human history in Serbia , Mesopotamia , Egypt , the Indus civilization , lowland Mesoamerica , and China.
- Indus script is largely pictorial and has not been deciphered yet.
- However, these trends have been far from uniform across regions.
- Secondly, the relational dimension was important for trust included:
- But Goody contests, «The importance of Greek culture of the subsequent history of Western Europe has led to an over-emphasis, by classicists and others, on the addition of specific vowel signs to the set of consonantal ones that had been developed earlier in Western Asia».
- The project bid emerged from an intense «sandpit» event.
- Secondly, the relational dimension was important for trust included:
- The Reformation stressed the importance of literacy and being able to read the Bible.
- When the Western Roman Empire collapsed, the import of papyrus to Europe ceased.
- There are things they may not want to share with friends and family e.
- The challenge is to enable them to do so.
The fundamentals of a syllable, the verbs and nouns shall all be written for him and even if he does not want to he shall be compelled to information literacy in europe a literature review. Even information literacy in europe a literature review the remnants of the Western Roman Empire fell in the s literacy continued to be a distinguishing mark of the elite as communications skills were still important in political and Church life bishops were largely drawn from the senatorial class in a new cultural synthesis that made «Christianity the Roman religion,» .
However, these skills were less in needed than previously in the absence of the large imperial administrative apparatus whose middle and top labaseeen.000webhostapp.com the elite had dominated as if by right.
Post-Antiquity illiteracy was made much worse due to a lack of suitable writing medium.
When the Western Roman Empire collapsed, the information literacy in europe a literature review of papyrus to Europe ceased. Since papyrus perishes easily and does not last well in the wetter or damper European climate, the alternative was parchment which was expensive and accessible only by the Church and upper layers of the society. Once paper was introduced into Europe in the 11th century in Spain. Its use spread north slowly over the next four centuries.
Increased information literacy in europe a literature review saw a resurgence because of its use. By the 15th century paper had largely replaced parchment except for many luxury manuscripts some of which used paper. The Reformation stressed the importance of literacy and being able to read the Bible.